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1.4 - The Internet

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Learning Objectives
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 1.4 I can explain the characteristics of the internet, in terms of it as a network of interconnected networks, spanning the world
 1.4 I can explain the characteristics of copper-cable internet connections
 1.4 I can explain the characteristics of optical-fibre internet connections
 1.4 I can explain the characteristics of satellite internet connections
 1.4 I can explain the characteristics of microwave internet connections
 1.4 I can explain the characteristics of mobile data networks

🏁 Learning Objective 15 :- I can explain the characteristics of the internet, in terms of it as a network of interconnected networks, spanning the world



The Internet as a network

The Internet is a collection of computers connected by network cables or through satellite links. Rather than connecting every computer on the Internet with every other computer, individual computers in an organization are normally connected in a local area network (LAN). One node on this local area network is physically connected to the Internet. So the Internet is a network of networks.



Question

  1. Explain how the internet connects you to anyone else in the world through your network connection.
Write the answer in your revision powerpoint!

Extension question:

  1. Explain how information is moved around the internet and the role of the following devices:
    • Hubs
    • Switches
    • Routers
  2. Explain the difference between the following internet layers and how it relates to routers hubs and switches:
    • Physical layer
    • Link Layer
    • Network Layer

🏁 Learning Objective 16 :- I can explain the characteristics of copper-cable internet connections


Copper Cable

The Physical Layer of the internet is the layer that actually transmits the bits of information, copper cable is one of the mediums for doing this.

Copper cabling standards are designated as Category 3 ( voice ), Category 5, Category 5e, Category 6, Augmented Category 6 (Cat 6A), Category 7, Category 7A (augmented).



Question

  1. Explain two advantages and disadvantages of using copper wires for the physical layer of the internet.
Write the answer in your revision powerpoint!

Extension question:

  1. Explain the following terms in realtion to copper wires:
    • UTP and STP
    • CAT Categories
    • Bandwidth

🏁 Learning Objective 17 :- I can explain the characteristics of optical-fibre internet connections


Fibre Optic Cables

The Physical Layer of the internet is the layer that actually transmits the bits of information, Fibre Optic cables are another mediums for doing this.


Bandwidth of cables of the same diameter

Fiber-optic cables are now the main way of carrying information over long distances because they have three very big advantages over old-style copper cables:

  • Less attenuation: (signal loss) Information travels roughly 10 times further before it needs amplifying—which makes fiber networks simpler and cheaper to operate and maintain.
  • No interference: Unlike with copper cables, there's no "crosstalk" (electromagnetic interference) between optical fibers, so they transmit information more reliably with better signal quality
  • Higher bandwidth: As we can see in the diagram above, fiber-optic cables can carry far more data than copper cables of the same diameter.

Question

  1. Explain how fibre optic cables have increased the data capacity of the internet.
Write the answer in your revision powerpoint!

Extension question:

  1. Explain the following terms in realtion to fibre optic cables:
    • Attenuation
    • Interference
    • Bandwidth

🏁 Learning Objective 18 :- I can explain the characteristics of satellite internet connections


Satellite connections

Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communications satellites. Modern consumer grade satellite Internet service is typically provided to individual users through geostationary satellites that can offer relatively high data speeds, with newer satellites using Ka band to achieve downstream data speeds up to 50 Mbps.


Question

  1. How does a geostationary satellite help connect you to the internet?
Write the answer in your revision powerpoint!


🏁 Learning Objective 19 :- I can explain the characteristics of microwave internet connections


Microwave connections

Microwave communication is method of wirelessly sending data. It is very similar to radio technology. Microwaves are right next to radio waves on the electromagnetic spectrum.

Modern microwave systems are used in telephone networks (both wireless and wireline) and ISPs.

Microwave is a powerful tool wherever data must be transmitted a long distance without physical wires. This is common in rural mountainous regions, where installing physical transmission lines is difficult and expensive.

Just like visible light, microwaves are blocked by obstacles. They need a clear path to reach their destination. Mounting transmitters and receivers high on a tower offers a clear line-of-sight to the next tower. Also, taller towers reduce the impact of the Earth's curvature. Taller towers can be spaced farther apart and still see one another.

  • Database Server
  • Data Centres
  • Cloud Storage

Question

  1. Give an advantage and disadvantage of Microwave connections.
Write the answer in your revision powerpoint!

Extension question:

  1. How is the speed of Microwave connections, causing a resurgance of its use?

🏁 Learning Objective 20 :- I can explain the characteristics of mobile data networks


Mobile Networks

A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally three cell sites or base stations. These base stations provide the cell with the network coverage which can be used for transmission of voice, data and others. A cell typically uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed service quality within each cell

The most common example of a cellular network is a mobile phone (cell phone) network. A mobile phone is a portable telephone which receives or makes calls through a cell site (base station), or transmitting tower. Radio waves are used to transfer signals to and from the cell phone.


Question

  1. How does a mobile device connect to the Internet?
Write the answer in your revision powerpoint!

Extension question:

  1. How is a mobile network able to access your location?


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Teacher Date: 2019-11-18


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