Assignment, Variables, Constants & Sequences
Inputs, Outputs & Type Conversion
IF Statements & Boolean Operators
Nested Selection and Iteration
WHILE, REPEAT-UNTIL Loops
Validation and verification
Validation and authentication routines
High-level & Low-level languages
Assemblers, Compilers & Interpreters
High level languages are written so that they are as close to our human language as they can be, allowing the programmer to focus on the problem to be solved.
You do not need any real understanding of the hardware to use a high level language as they are not tied to a particular computer or CPU
High level languages have to be converted to the language the computer understands, machine code, before they can be run. This process is either interpreting or compiling, depending on the high level language used
Low level languages are used to write programs that relate to the specific architecture and hardware of a particular type of computer.
They are closer to the native language of a computer (binary), making them harder for programmers to understand.
Examples of low level language:
Not many programs are written using assembly language, it does tend to be used when dealing with hardware items like when creating device drivers or on embedded systems.
It is easy to distinguish it from a high level language as it contains short mnemonic code words rather than standard english words.
Programmers rarely if ever use machine code (binary) as it is very difficult to understand.